Подключение PHP-FPM и Memcached к Nginx

// Ноябрь 26th, 2010 // Highload, Memcached, PHP, Веб-разработка

На продакшен сервере у нас связка Nginx (отдает статику) + Apache (отдает динамику) + mod_php. Задумали отказаться от Apache, а заодно и подключить PHP в режиме FastCGI с помощью php-fpm, т.к. исследование показало прирост скорости.

Итак, Nginx — фронт-энд на 80 порту. PHP-FPM — бекэнд на 9091 порту.Memcached на 11211 порту машины.

Конфиг Nginx:

# PHP-FPM (backend)
upstream php-fpm {
	server 127.0.0.1:9010;
}

# Конфиг Nginx (frontend)
server {

  # Порт, принимаемые HOST и путь к сайту
  listen 80;
  server_name www.site.com site.com;
  set $root_path '/home/andrey/site.com';
  root $root_path;


  # Пути к логам
  access_log /var/log/nginx/site.com/access1.log;
  error_log  /var/log/nginx/site.com/error1.log  error;


  # Запросы непосредственно .php-файлов, например утилит или index.php (не кэшируются)
  location ~ \.php$ {
	include /etc/nginx/fastcgi_params;
	fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $root_path/$fastcgi_script_name;
	fastcgi_param DOCUMENT_ROOT $root_path; # этот параметр нужен несмотря на root в секции server
        fastcgi_pass php-fpm;
  }
  # Копия предыдущего для internal переадресации
  location @phpscripts {
	include /etc/nginx/fastcgi_params;
	fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $root_path/$fastcgi_script_name;
	fastcgi_param DOCUMENT_ROOT $root_path; # этот параметр нужен несмотря на root в секции server
        fastcgi_pass php-fpm;
  }

  # Остальные запросы также идут на PHP-FPM, если $uri не существует (через memcache)
  location / {
     add_header    Content-Type  "text/html";
     root  $root_path;

     # Проверки для кэширования
     set $cachable 1;

     # не кэшировать пост
     if ($request_method = POST ) {
	set $cachable 0;
	break;
     }

    # авторизованные
     if ($http_cookie ~ "PHPSESSID") {
	set $cachable 0;
	break;
     }

     if ($cachable = 1) {
	     set             $memcached_key   'nginx_$host$uri?$args';
	     memcached_pass  127.0.0.1:11211;
     }
     error_page      404 502 504 405 = @php;
  }

  # Веб-приложение
  location @php {
	include /etc/nginx/fastcgi_params;
	fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $root_path/index.php;
        fastcgi_pass php-fpm;
  }

  # Переопеределение 502 ошибки
  error_page	502 = /502.html;
  location = /502.html {  
         root  $root_path/misc/errors/;  
  }  

  # Для js, css, swf, ico
  location ~* \.(css|js|swf|ico)$ {
	root  $root_path;
	access_log   off;
        expires      30d;
  }

  # Защита от просмотра .htaccess и .htpasswd файлов
  location ~ /\.ht {
	deny  all;
  }

  # Защита от просмотра svn-файлов
  location ~ /.svn/ {
 	deny all;
  } 

  # Для ресайза изображений, загруженных пользователями
  location /public/uploads/ {
      if (!-e $request_filename) {
	  rewrite ^(/public/uploads/pictures/[^/]+/\d+x\d+/[^/]+) http://$http_host/utils/image_resize.php?image_path=$1 last;
	  return 404;
      }
  }

  # Для ресайзинга изображений из папки /images
  location /public/images/ {
      if (!-e $request_filename) {
	  rewrite ^(/public/images/[^/]+/\d+x\d+/[^/]+) http://$http_host/utils/image_resize.php?image_path=$1 last;
	  return 404;
      }
  }

  # Статус запросы (/status) и пинг(/ping) запросы от системы мониторинга
  location ~ ^/(status|ping)$ {
      include fastcgi_params;
      fastcgi_pass 127.0.0.1:9010;
      fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $fastcgi_script_name;
      allow 127.0.0.1;
      deny all;
  } 
}

Конфиг PHP5-FPM:

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
; FPM Configuration ;
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

; All relative paths in this configuration file are relative to PHP's install
; prefix.

; Include one or more files. If glob(3) exists, it is used to include a bunch of
; files from a glob(3) pattern. This directive can be used everywhere in the
; file.
; include=/etc/fpm/conf/*.conf

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
; Global Options ;
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

[global]
; Pid file
; Default Value: none
pid = /var/run/php5-fpm.pid

; Error log file
; Default Value: /var/log/php5-fpm.log
error_log = /var/log/php5-fpm.log

; Log level
; Possible Values: alert, error, warning, notice, debug
; Default Value: notice
;log_level = notice

; If this number of child processes exit with SIGSEGV or SIGBUS within the time
; interval set by emergency_restart_interval then FPM will restart. A value
; of '0' means 'Off'.
; Default Value: 0
emergency_restart_threshold=10

; Interval of time used by emergency_restart_interval to determine when
; a graceful restart will be initiated.  This can be useful to work around
; accidental corruptions in an accelerator's shared memory.
; Available Units: s(econds), m(inutes), h(ours), or d(ays)
; Default Unit: seconds
; Default Value: 0
emergency_restart_interval=60

; Time limit for child processes to wait for a reaction on signals from master.
; Available units: s(econds), m(inutes), h(ours), or d(ays)
; Default Unit: seconds
; Default Value: 0
process_control_timeout=5

; Send FPM to background. Set to 'no' to keep FPM in foreground for debugging.
; Default Value: yes
daemonize = yes

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
; Pool Definitions ;
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

; Multiple pools of child processes may be started with different listening
; ports and different management options.  The name of the pool will be
; used in logs and stats. There is no limitation on the number of pools which
; FPM can handle. Your system will tell you anyway :)

; Start a new pool named 'www'.
[www]

; The address on which to accept FastCGI requests.
; Valid syntaxes are:
;   'ip.add.re.ss:port'    - to listen on a TCP socket to a specific address on
;                            a specific port;
;   'port'                 - to listen on a TCP socket to all addresses on a
;                            specific port;
;   '/path/to/unix/socket' - to listen on a unix socket.
; Note: This value is mandatory.
listen = 127.0.0.1:9010
; listen = /tmp/php-fpm.socket

; Set listen(2) backlog. A value of '-1' means unlimited.
; Default Value: -1
;listen.backlog = -1

; List of ipv4 addresses of FastCGI clients which are allowed to connect.
; Equivalent to the FCGI_WEB_SERVER_ADDRS environment variable in the original
; PHP FCGI (5.2.2+). Makes sense only with a tcp listening socket. Each address
; must be separated by a comma. If this value is left blank, connections will be
; accepted from any ip address.
; Default Value: any
;listen.allowed_clients = 127.0.0.1

; Set permissions for unix socket, if one is used. In Linux, read/write
; permissions must be set in order to allow connections from a web server. Many
; BSD-derived systems allow connections regardless of permissions.
; Default Values: user and group are set as the running user
;                 mode is set to 0666
;listen.owner = www-data
;listen.group = www-data
;listen.mode = 0666

; Unix user/group of processes
; Note: The user is mandatory. If the group is not set, the default user's group
;       will be used.
user = www-data
group = www-data

; Choose how the process manager will control the number of child processes.
; Possible Values:
;   static  - a fixed number (pm.max_children) of child processes;
;   dynamic - the number of child processes are set dynamically based on the
;             following directives:
;             pm.max_children      - the maximum number of children that can
;                                    be alive at the same time.
;             pm.start_servers     - the number of children created on startup.
;             pm.min_spare_servers - the minimum number of children in 'idle'
;                                    state (waiting to process). If the number
;                                    of 'idle' processes is less than this
;                                    number then some children will be created.
;             pm.max_spare_servers - the maximum number of children in 'idle'
;                                    state (waiting to process). If the number
;                                    of 'idle' processes is greater than this
;                                    number then some children will be killed.
; Note: This value is mandatory.
pm = dynamic

; The number of child processes to be created when pm is set to 'static' and the
; maximum number of child processes to be created when pm is set to 'dynamic'.
; This value sets the limit on the number of simultaneous requests that will be
; served. Equivalent to the ApacheMaxClients directive with mpm_prefork.
; Equivalent to the PHP_FCGI_CHILDREN environment variable in the original PHP
; CGI.
; Note: Used when pm is set to either 'static' or 'dynamic'
; Note: This value is mandatory.
pm.max_children = 50

; The number of child processes created on startup.
; Note: Used only when pm is set to 'dynamic'
; Default Value: min_spare_servers + (max_spare_servers - min_spare_servers) / 2
pm.start_servers = 20

; The desired minimum number of idle server processes.
; Note: Used only when pm is set to 'dynamic'
; Note: Mandatory when pm is set to 'dynamic'
pm.min_spare_servers = 5

; The desired maximum number of idle server processes.
; Note: Used only when pm is set to 'dynamic'
; Note: Mandatory when pm is set to 'dynamic'
pm.max_spare_servers = 35

; The number of requests each child process should execute before respawning.
; This can be useful to work around memory leaks in 3rd party libraries. For
; endless request processing specify '0'. Equivalent to PHP_FCGI_MAX_REQUESTS.
; Default Value: 0
pm.max_requests = 0

; The URI to view the FPM status page. If this value is not set, no URI will be
; recognized as a status page. By default, the status page shows the following
; information:
;   accepted conn    - the number of request accepted by the pool;
;   pool             - the name of the pool;
;   process manager  - static or dynamic;
;   idle processes   - the number of idle processes;
;   active processes - the number of active processes;
;   total processes  - the number of idle + active processes.
; The values of 'idle processes', 'active processes' and 'total processes' are
; updated each second. The value of 'accepted conn' is updated in real time.
; Example output:
;   accepted conn:   12073
;   pool:             www
;   process manager:  static
;   idle processes:   35
;   active processes: 65
;   total processes:  100
; By default the status page output is formatted as text/plain. Passing either
; 'html' or 'json' as a query string will return the corresponding output
; syntax. Example:
;   http://www.foo.bar/status
;   http://www.foo.bar/status?json
;   http://www.foo.bar/status?html
; Note: The value must start with a leading slash (/). The value can be
;       anything, but it may not be a good idea to use the .php extension or it
;       may conflict with a real PHP file.
; Default Value: not set
pm.status_path = /status

; The ping URI to call the monitoring page of FPM. If this value is not set, no
; URI will be recognized as a ping page. This could be used to test from outside
; that FPM is alive and responding, or to
; - create a graph of FPM availability (rrd or such);
; - remove a server from a group if it is not responding (load balancing);
; - trigger alerts for the operating team (24/7).
; Note: The value must start with a leading slash (/). The value can be
;       anything, but it may not be a good idea to use the .php extension or it
;       may conflict with a real PHP file.
; Default Value: not set
ping.path = /ping

; This directive may be used to customize the response of a ping request. The
; response is formatted as text/plain with a 200 response code.
; Default Value: pong
ping.response = pong

; The timeout for serving a single request after which the worker process will
; be killed. This option should be used when the 'max_execution_time' ini option
; does not stop script execution for some reason. A value of '0' means 'off'.
; Available units: s(econds)(default), m(inutes), h(ours), or d(ays)
; Default Value: 0
;request_terminate_timeout = 0

; The timeout for serving a single request after which a PHP backtrace will be
; dumped to the 'slowlog' file. A value of '0s' means 'off'.
; Available units: s(econds)(default), m(inutes), h(ours), or d(ays)
; Default Value: 0
request_slowlog_timeout = 0

; The log file for slow requests
; Default Value: /var/log/php5-fpm.log.slow
slowlog = /var/log/php-fpm/php5-fpm.log.slow

; Set open file descriptor rlimit.
; Default Value: system defined value
rlimit_files = 4096

; Set max core size rlimit.
; Possible Values: 'unlimited' or an integer greater or equal to 0
; Default Value: system defined value
;rlimit_core = 0

; Chroot to this directory at the start. This value must be defined as an
; absolute path. When this value is not set, chroot is not used.
; Note: chrooting is a great security feature and should be used whenever
;       possible. However, all PHP paths will be relative to the chroot
;       (error_log, sessions.save_path, ...).
; Default Value: not set
;chroot = 

; Chdir to this directory at the start. This value must be an absolute path.
; Default Value: current directory or / when chroot
;chdir = /var/www

; Redirect worker stdout and stderr into main error log. If not set, stdout and
; stderr will be redirected to /dev/null according to FastCGI specs.
; Default Value: no
;catch_workers_output = yes

; Pass environment variables like LD_LIBRARY_PATH. All $VARIABLEs are taken from
; the current environment.
; Default Value: clean env
;env[HOSTNAME] = $HOSTNAME
;env[PATH] = /usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin
;env[TMP] = /tmp
;env[TMPDIR] = /tmp
;env[TEMP] = /tmp

; Additional php.ini defines, specific to this pool of workers. These settings
; overwrite the values previously defined in the php.ini. The directives are the
; same as the PHP SAPI:
;   php_value/php_flag             - you can set classic ini defines which can
;                                    be overwritten from PHP call 'ini_set'.
;   php_admin_value/php_admin_flag - these directives won't be overwritten by
;                                     PHP call 'ini_set'
; For php_*flag, valid values are on, off, 1, 0, true, false, yes or no.

; Defining 'extension' will load the corresponding shared extension from
; extension_dir. Defining 'disable_functions' or 'disable_classes' will not
; overwrite previously defined php.ini values, but will append the new value
; instead.

; Default Value: nothing is defined by default except the values in php.ini and
;                specified at startup with the -d argument
;php_admin_value[sendmail_path] = /usr/sbin/sendmail -t -i -f www@my.domain.com
;php_flag[display_errors] = off
;php_admin_value[error_log] = /var/log/fpm-php.www.log
;php_admin_flag[log_errors] = on
php_admin_value[memory_limit] = 512M
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Спасибо!


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7 Responses to “Подключение PHP-FPM и Memcached к Nginx”

  1. Andy:

    Лучше локейшены делать с префиксами: http://stproject.info/blog/?p=984

    location /public/ {
    location /uploads/ {
    }

    location /images/ {
    }
    }

  2. Andy:

    Только начальный слэш во вложенных локейшенах лишний, вроде как, хотя точно не уверен)

  3. google.com Андрей Токарчук:

    Обновил конфиг. Теперь php-fpm подключен через upstream, что позволит добавить сервера для распределения нагрузки.

  4. Зачем в конфиге столько закомментированных строк? :) Ещё и подсветкой не выделяются, хрен проберешься.

    • google.com Андрей Токарчук:

      Если вы про конфиг php5-fpm, то это практически оригинальный файл, который был в пакете. Комментарии соответственно поставлены автором, и сделано это как и во многих других nix-конфигах, чтобы можно было просто раскомментировать нужные строчки. Я оставил его в таком виде, чтобы было проще ориентироваться по оригинальному файлу.

  5. prox:

    А где memcached?

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